Japanese Grammar! 日本語文法!

Today’s lesson will be all about the word particle に and へ. へ is pronounced like え when being used as a word particle. We use the word particle に and へ in various ways. Sometimes they are used for indicating a location for example in the sentence:

  • Maeda wa supa ni ittekimashita.
  • まえだはスーパーいってきました。
  • 前田はスーパー行ってきました。
  • Maeda went to the supermarket.

The word particle に is translated here as the English word “to”. You can also put the word particle へ where the particle に is and it means the same thing. For example:

  • Maeda-san wa supa e ittekimashita.
  • まえださんはスーパーいってきました。
  • 前田さんはスーパー行ってきました。
  • Maeda went to the supermarket.

The particle へ is often used when welcoming someone to someplace. In these kind of sentences へ is often preferred over に. For example:

  • Nihon e yokoso.
  • にほんようこそ。
  • 日本ようこそ。
  • Welcome to Japan.

The Japanese particle に has many, many uses. It probably has the most uses out of all the Japanese particles. However, many of them are very easy to pick up on. In all of these other uses except the first sentence example I gave you, に can no longer be replaced with へ.

The particle に marks the indirect object in the sentence. The indirect object is the person or thing that receives the direct object in the sentence. For example:

  • Maeda-san wa watashi ni chito o kuremashita.
  • まえださんはわたしちとうをくれました。
  • 前田さんは私砂糖をくれました。
  • Maeda gave me the sugar./ Maeda gave the sugar to me.

As you can see, the indirect object usually comes before the direct object in a sentence.

に also indicates source or agent in passive or causative verbs. It translates to “by” in English.

  • Maeda-san ni nihongo o oshietemoraimashita.
  • まえださんにほんごをおしえてもらいました。
  • 前田さん日本語を教えてもらいました。
  • I was taught Japanese by Maeda.

The particle に is used with frequency expressions such as “per week”, “per day”, etc.

  • Ichinichi ni nijikan gurai benkyō shimasu.
  • いちにちにじかんぐらいべんきょうします。
  • 一日二時間ぐらい勉強します。
  • I study about 2 hours per day.

The particle に is used with various time expressions (year, month, day, and clock time) to indicate a specific point in time. It translates as at, on, or in. However, expressions of relative time, such as today or tomorrow, don’t take the particle に.

  • Shichiji ni okimasu.
  • しちじおきます。
  • 七時起きます。
  • I wake up at 7:00.

The particle に is used to indicate purpose. It translates as to or in order to.

  • Eiga o mi ni ikimashita.
  • えいがをみいきました。
  • 映画を見行きました。
  • I went to see a movie.

The particle に is used when a motion or action is directed at or onto an object or place.

  • nōto o kaban ni iremashita.
  • ノートをかばんいれました。
  • ノートをかばん入れました。
  • I put the notebook in the bag.

The particle に is typically used with verbs such as iru (to exist [for living things]), aru (to exist [for non-living things]) and sumu (to live [somewhere]). It translates into at or in.

  • Tōkyō ni sundeimasu.
  • とうきょうすんでいます。
  • 東京住んでいます。
  • I live in Tokyo.

Today we learned about the Japanese particles に and へ. We learned that they can both be used to indicate destination or direction. We also learned a lot of other ways to use the particle に. I hope this is helpful! If you have any questions, leave a comment below or send me an email at colormeindie@gmail.com. ✿♬゚+.(。◡‿◡)♪.+゚♬✿。


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